The dedicated internal combustion engines considered in the proposal can be fuelled with pure bioethanol or its blends with hydrocarbon-based fuel; their application is intended for light commercial and heavy duty buses and trucks (e.g. garbage trucks) on captive fleets, then allowing a much higher amplitude of adaptation of bioethanol blends to the need of the combustion process. Three technology ways will be explored:
- for heavy-duty urban vehicles, a spark ignition (Otto cycle) engine designed for heavy-duty application;
- for light commercials, a spark ignition (Otto cycle) engine using in some part of engine operations an innovative controlled auto-ignition (CAI) process;
- for light commercials, a compression ignition (Diesel cycle) engine using an innovative surface ignition system.
The objective of the project was to build, in a crash programme of two years, engine solutions based on the three technological ways able to meet ambitious targets in terms of: future emission limits (Euro 6); fuel conversion efficiency (at least 10% higher than that of a today SI engine running on equivalent bioethanol blends); cold startability down to -15 °C of ambient temperature. Starting from existing powertrains, the engine systems (including after-treatment), components and materials will be adapted and optimised. The project set out to identify the most promising route for maximising the benefits in terms of local and global emissions. The three technologies were compared in terms of costs and time to market, taking into account the type of fuel that can be used in the captive fleet.
The development of engine technologies has covered different combustion approaches:
- Stoichiometric TC SI engine for HD applications,
- Surface Ignition Diesel engine for LD applications,
- Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) TC SI engine for LD applications.
Due to the specific combustion systems, different fuel compositions have to be used not only in terms of gross bio-ethanol content, but also in terms of hydrocarbon composition, volatility, octane number, etc. Experimental activities have been coupled to life cycle analysis that will consider the entire impact of both 1st and 2nd generation bio-ethanol chains including contributions from Direct Land Use Change (DLUC).
The project consisted of Work Packages:
- WP0: Well to Tank analysis on 1st and 2nd generation bio-ethanol chains including assessment of different use of heat/energy recovery including DLUC contribution; Well to Wheel simulation on NEDC and on 'Real Life' testing conditions.
- WP1: Development of a dedicated fuel injection system and cold start electrical device; Prototype engine with compression ratio optimised for E100.
- WP2: Development of the combustion chamber for Diesel/ethanol blend characterization. Experimental activity on Single Cylinder engines to determine boundary condition for Diesel like combustion approach: possible use of Diesel blends containing up to 30% E85.
- WP3: Development of the combustion code for Controlled Auto-Ignition process simulation. Experimental activities on Single Cylinder engines to determine influence of fuel parameters on combustion stability, fuel efficiency and pollutant formation. Operation under full load conditions on the Multi Cylinder engine showed good potential for increasing engine efficiency with E85.
- WP4: Influence of low ethanol blend on combustion and particulate number on Multi Cylinder SI engine.
The project showed engine solutions meeting ambitious targets: future emission limits, fuel conversion efficiency and cold startability.
Innovating for the future (technology and behaviour):
- A European Transport Research and Innovation Policy
- Promoting more sustainable development
Avl List GmBh
Fev Motorentechnik GmBh
Rheinisch-Westfaelische Technische Hochschule Aachen
Centro Ricerche Fiat SCPA (Project Coordinator)
Consiglio Nazionale Delle Ricerche
Exxonmobil Research and Engineering Company