- Country Profiles
- About TRIP
Research in this area focuses on methods to bridge the gap between the cost of transport projects and the revenue to be generated from the operation of transport systems. It includes pricing and taxation instruments that provide the capital up front for the construction and renewal of infrastructure as well as cash management tools and credit enhancement and/ or investment tools. For instance, provision of capital for investment; financing schemes for transport systems; public-private partnerships; socio-economic financial and risk analysis; and assessment of positive and negative impacts resulting from new financing principles. Financing tools also include the creation of suitable organisational structures with the capacity to manage new approaches in financing.
As in other network industries, elements of the transport sector are characterised by high fixed costs and large economies of scale which hamper the market entry of new actors and hence the development of effective competition. As many services show low profitability, state subsidies and the provision of public services are common practice. Competition in the transport sector is often further impeded by deviating standards across modes and countries. Research provides the basis for setting regulatory standards. Regulation may be used to facilitate competition, as well as to achieve specific transport objectives, such as safety.
Research on transport infrastructure and the Trans-European Networks (TEN-T) covers planning, financing, design, construction, operation, and maintenance of infrastructure for all transport modes. The theme covers physical networks including right of way and modal transfers, and information and communication networks to support traffic management. The theme includes the development of TEN-T networks in all transport modes, which is a key aspect of the EU transport strategy.
Research focuses on integrated planning of transport systems and land use to identify ways to reduce congestion by increasing development density and by developing land-use patterns to encourage provision and use of public transport. Another aspect is development control to match the traffic impact of developments with the capacity of the transport system to cope with the pedestrian and vehicle traffic generated.
Research is carried out in support of a wide range of policies dedicated to mitigating climate change, which is a central goal of European transport policy. Policies focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions using instruments such as emission trading systems and setting regulations. Research on energy efficiency is directed, for instance, to potential policy measures, and technological, economic and behaviour changes to reduce energy consumption per output indicator (such as passenger or tonne-kilometre).
Transport safety concerns the exposure of people, goods and property to potential hazards in all parts of the transport system and may vary according to transport mode. Research is accessing acceptable levels of risk according to the choices made by individuals, whether operating staff, drivers or passengers. Security research aims at protecting people, goods and transport systems from real and perceived threat of crime, terrorism, negligence, technical failures or natural disasters.
Research covers the transport needs between EU Member States and neighbourhood countries and other countries worldwide. Specific research focuses are integration of EU transport networks and systems with external countries and regions, directed to facilitating the movement of goods and passengers, as well as integrated safety and security systems.
Research ranges from the role of transport users and their influence on achieving long-term objectives of transport policy to the protection of user rights and interests. It includes improving information provision to transport users, and increasing user awareness of the implications of their transport choices. The theme embraces user perspectives on the quality of transport services, such as reliability, flexibility, comfort, affordability and convenience.